The length of the Moldovan border line is 1389 km, of which 939 km is the guarded portion of the border with Ukraine and 450 km is the border with Romania. The state frontier sets the territorial limits of the state sovereignty of the Republic of Moldova, and border related interests are under the surveillance of the Border Guard Service.

The Border Guard Service of the Republic of Moldova is an authority of central public administration exercising its functions at the state border control points with the aim of combating specific cases of cross-border criminality, including illegal migration. Authorization for crossing the border, both for individuals and vehicles, is given at the state border crossing points. The process includes the observance of the legality of any border crossings by individuals and/or vehicles, and the validity of documents for the right of entry or exit from the Republic of Moldova, as well as the validity of accompanying documents for transport means. Border control referring to foreign citizens consists of visa requirements and residence/working permits requirements.

There are in total 51 border crossing points, 8 of which are on the Moldova- Romania border (the external border of the EU).